Piping and Plumbing Fitting

A fitting is used in pipe systems to connect straight pipe or tubing sections, adapt to different sizes or shapes and for other purposes, such as regulating {or measuring) fluid flow. “Plumbing” is generally used to describe the conveyance of water, gas, or liquid waste in domestic or commercial environments; “piping” is often used to describe the high-performance (high-pressure, high-flow, high-temperature or hazardous-material) conveyance of fluids in specialized applications. “Tubing” is sometimes used for lighter-weight piping, especially those flexible enough to be supplied in coiled form.


Standard codes are followed when designing (or manufacturing) a piping system. Organizations which promulgate piping standards include:

ASME American Society of Mechanical Engineers

A112.19.1 Enameled cast-iron and steel plumbing fixtures standards

A112.19.2 Ceramic plumbing fixtures standard

ASTM International American Society for Testing and Materials

API American Petroleum Institute

AWS American Welding Society

AWWA American Water Works Association

MSS Manufacturers Standardization Society

ANSI American National Standards Institute

NFPA National Fire Protection Association

EJMA Expansion Joint Manufacturers Association

CGA Compressed Gas Association

Pipes must conform to the dimensional requirements of:

ASME B36.10M Welded and seamless wrought-steel pipe

ASME B36.19M Stainless-steel pipe

ASME B31.3 2008 Process piping

ASME B31.4 XXXX Power piping

The B31.3 and B31.4 codes have requirements for piping found in petroleum refineries; chemical, pharmaceutical, textile, paper, semiconductor, and cryogenic plants, and related processing plants and terminals. These codes specify requirements for materials and components, design, fabrication, assembly, erection, examination, inspection and testing of piping. The codes are applicable to piping for all fluids, including raw, intermediate and finished chemicals; petroleum products; gas, steam, air and water; fluidized solids; refrigerants, and cryogenic fluids.

Post time: Aug-24-2021